Nephro-Urology Monthly

Published by: Kowsar

The Predictors of Left Ventricular Hypertrophy in Kidney Transplant Recipients

Rizna Abdul Cader 1 , * , Samir Paul 1 , Rozita Mohd 1 , Noor Izyani Zakaria 1 , Abdul Halim Abdul Gafor 1 , Wei Yen Kong 1 and Arbaiyah Bain 1
Authors Information
1 Department of Medicine, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
Article information
  • Nephro-Urology Monthly: March 2018, 10 (2); e61641
  • Published Online: February 19, 2018
  • Article Type: Research Article
  • Received: September 27, 2017
  • Revised: October 23, 2017
  • Accepted: February 3, 2018
  • DOI: 10.5812/numonthly.61641

To Cite: Cader R A, Paul S, Mohd R, Izyani Zakaria N, Halim Abdul Gafor A, et al. The Predictors of Left Ventricular Hypertrophy in Kidney Transplant Recipients, Nephro-Urol Mon. 2018 ; 10(2):e61641. doi: 10.5812/numonthly.61641.

Copyright © 2018, Nephro-Urology Monthly. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License ( which permits copy and redistribute the material just in noncommercial usages, provided the original work is properly cited
1. Background
2. Methods
3. Results
4. Discussion
  • 1. Matas AJ, Smith JM, Skeans MA, Thompson B, Gustafson SK, Stewart DE, et al. OPTN/SRTR 2013 Annual Data Report: kidney. Am J Transplant. 2015;15 Suppl 2:1-34. doi: 10.1111/ajt.13195. [PubMed: 25626344].
  • 2. USRDS 2008 Annual Data Report: Atlas of Chronic Kidney Disease and End-Stage Renal Disease in the United States. Bethesda: National Institutes of Health, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases; 2008.USRDS US Renal Data System.
  • 3. Ojo AO. Cardiovascular complications after renal transplantation and their prevention. Transplantation. 2006;82(5):603-11. doi: 10.1097/ [PubMed: 16969281].
  • 4. Jardine AG, Gaston RS, Fellstrom BC, Holdaas H. Prevention of cardiovascular disease in adult recipients of kidney transplants. Lancet. 2011;378(9800):1419-27. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(11)61334-2. [PubMed: 22000138].
  • 5. Kasiske BL. Risk factors for accelerated atherosclerosis in renal transplant recipients. Am J Med. 1988;84(6):985-92. [PubMed: 3287917].
  • 6. Abedini S, Holme I, Marz W, Weihrauch G, Fellstrom B, Jardine A, et al. Inflammation in renal transplantation. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2009;4(7):1246-54. doi: 10.2215/CJN.00930209. [PubMed: 19541816].
  • 7. Mangray M, Vella JP. Hypertension after kidney transplant. Am J Kidney Dis. 2011;57(2):331-41. doi: 10.1053/j.ajkd.2010.10.048. [PubMed: 21251543].
  • 8. Koren MJ, Devereux RB, Casale PN, Savage DD, Laragh JH. Relation of left ventricular mass and geometry to morbidity and mortality in uncomplicated essential hypertension. Ann Intern Med. 1991;114(5):345-52. [PubMed: 1825164].
  • 9. Arnadottir M, Hultberg B, Vladov V, Nilsson-Ehle P, Thysell H. Hyperhomocysteinemia in cyclosporine-treated renal transplant recipients. Transplantation. 1996;61(3):509-12. [PubMed: 8610370].
  • 10. Mark PB, Murphy K, Mohammed AS, Morris ST, Jardine AG. Endothelial dysfunction in renal transplant recipients. Transplant Proc. 2005;37(9):3805-7. doi: 10.1016/j.transproceed.2005.09.116. [PubMed: 16386545].
  • 11. Stein JH, Korcarz CE, Hurst RT, Lonn E, Kendall CB, Mohler ER, et al. Use of carotid ultrasound to identify subclinical vascular disease and evaluate cardiovascular disease risk: a consensus statement from the American Society of Echocardiography Carotid Intima-Media Thickness Task Force. Endorsed by the Society for Vascular Medicine. J Am Soc Echocardiogr. 2008;21(2):93-111. quiz 189-90. doi: 10.1016/j.echo.2007.11.011. [PubMed: 18261694].
  • 12. Wald DS, Law M, Morris JK. Homocysteine and cardiovascular disease: evidence on causality from a meta-analysis. BMJ. 2002;325(7374):1202. [PubMed: 12446535].
  • 13. Friedman AN, Bostom AG, Selhub J, Levey AS, Rosenberg IH. The kidney and homocysteine metabolism. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2001;12(10):2181-9. [PubMed: 11562419].
  • 14. Winkelmayer WC, Kramar R, Curhan GC, Chandraker A, Endler G, Fodinger M, et al. Fasting plasma total homocysteine levels and mortality and allograft loss in kidney transplant recipients: a prospective study. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2005;16(1):255-60. doi: 10.1681/ASN.2004070576. [PubMed: 15563562].
  • 15. Ducloux D, Motte G, Challier B, Gibey R, Chalopin JM. Serum total homocysteine and cardiovascular disease occurrence in chronic, stable renal transplant recipients: a prospective study. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2000;11(1):134-7. [PubMed: 10616849].
  • 16. Basu A, Jenkins AJ, Stoner JA, Thorpe SR, Klein RL, Lopes-Virella MF, et al. Plasma total homocysteine and carotid intima-media thickness in type 1 diabetes: a prospective study. Atherosclerosis. 2014;236(1):188-95. doi: 10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2014.07.001. [PubMed: 25063949].
  • 17. Becker GJ, Wheeler DC, De Zeeuw D, Fujita T, Furth SL, Holdaas H, et al. Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) Blood Pressure Work Group. KDIGO clinical practice guideline for the management of blood pressure in chronic kidney disease. Kidney Int Suppl. 2012;2(5):337-414.
  • 18. Weber MA, Schiffrin EL, White WB, Mann S, Lindholm LH, Kenerson JG, et al. Clinical practice guidelines for the management of hypertension in the community: a statement by the American Society of Hypertension and the International Society of Hypertension. J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich). 2014;16(1):14-26. doi: 10.1111/jch.12237. [PubMed: 24341872].
  • 19. Devereux RB, Reichek N. Echocardiographic determination of left ventricular mass in man. Anatomic validation of the method. Circulation. 1977;55(4):613-8. [PubMed: 138494].
  • 20. Lang RM, Bierig M, Devereux RB, Flachskampf FA, Foster E, Pellikka PA, et al. Recommendations for chamber quantification: a report from the American Society of Echocardiography's Guidelines and Standards Committee and the Chamber Quantification Writing Group, developed in conjunction with the European Association of Echocardiography, a branch of the European Society of Cardiology. J Am Soc Echocardiogr. 2005;18(12):1440-63. doi: 10.1016/j.echo.2005.10.005. [PubMed: 16376782].
  • 21. Lwanga SK, Lemeshow S. Sample size determination in health studies: a practical manual. World Health Organization; 1991.
  • 22. Cristol JP, Vela C, Maggi MF, Descomps B, Mourad G. Oxidative Stress and Lipid Abnormalities in Renal Transplant Recipients with or without Chronic Rejection1. Transplantation. 1998;65(10):1322-8. doi: 10.1097/00007890-199805270-00007.
  • 23. Chambless LE, Folsom AR, Davis V, Sharrett R, Heiss G, Sorlie P, et al. Risk factors for progression of common carotid atherosclerosis: the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study, 1987-1998. Am J Epidemiol. 2002;155(1):38-47. [PubMed: 11772783].
  • 24. Mackinnon AD, Jerrard-Dunne P, Sitzer M, Buehler A, von Kegler S, Markus HS. Rates and determinants of site-specific progression of carotid artery intima-media thickness: the carotid atherosclerosis progression study. Stroke. 2004;35(9):2150-4. doi: 10.1161/01.STR.0000136720.21095.f3. [PubMed: 15243147].
  • 25. Cader RA, Zakaria NI, Yaacob Y, Shah SA. Carotid intima-media thickness in kidney transplant recipients. Hong Kong J Nephrol. 2016;19:36-41. doi: 10.1016/j.hkjn.2016.08.001.
  • 26. Colbert G, Jain N, de Lemos JA, Hedayati SS. Utility of traditional circulating and imaging-based cardiac biomarkers in patients with predialysis CKD. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2015;10(3):515-29. doi: 10.2215/CJN.03600414. [PubMed: 25403922].
  • 27. Cuspidi C, Lonati L, Sampieri L, Macca G, Michev I, Salerno M, et al. Impact of blood pressure control on prevalence of left ventricular hypertrophy in treated hypertensive patients. Cardiology. 2000;93(3):149-54. doi: 10.1159/000007019. [PubMed: 10965085].
  • 28. Parati G, Stergiou GS, Asmar R, Bilo G, de Leeuw P, Imai Y, et al. European Society of Hypertension guidelines for blood pressure monitoring at home: a summary report of the Second International Consensus Conference on Home Blood Pressure Monitoring. J Hypertens. 2008;26(8):1505-26. doi: 10.1097/HJH.0b013e328308da66. [PubMed: 18622223].
  • 29. Camelia A, Anca Z, Mihai V. Predictive Factors of Abnormal Circadian Blood Pressure Profile in Recipients of Kidney Transplantation. Maedica. 2016;11(2):1637.
  • 30. Hernandez D, Gonzalez A, Rufino M, Laynez I, de la Rosa A, Porrini E, et al. Time-dependent changes in cardiac growth after kidney transplantation: the impact of pre-dialysis ventricular mass. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2007;22(9):2678-85. doi: 10.1093/ndt/gfm247. [PubMed: 17510095].
  • 31. Taddei S, Nami R, Bruno RM, Quatrini I, Nuti R. Hypertension, left ventricular hypertrophy and chronic kidney disease. Heart Fail Rev. 2011;16(6):615-20. doi: 10.1007/s10741-010-9197-z. [PubMed: 21116711].
  • 32. Velagaleti RS, Gona P, Chuang ML, Salton CJ, Fox CS, Blease SJ, et al. Relations of insulin resistance and glycemic abnormalities to cardiovascular magnetic resonance measures of cardiac structure and function: the Framingham Heart Study. Circ Cardiovasc Imaging. 2010;3(3):257-63. doi: 10.1161/CIRCIMAGING.109.911438. [PubMed: 20208015].
  • 33. Sezer S, Erkmen Uyar M, Tutal E, Bal Z, Guliyev O, Colak T, et al. New-onset diabetes and glucose regulation are significant determinants of left ventricular hypertrophy in renal transplant recipients. J Diabetes Res. 2015;2015:293896. doi: 10.1155/2015/293896. [PubMed: 25945353].
  • 34. Homocysteine Studies C. Homocysteine and risk of ischemic heart disease and stroke: a meta-analysis. JAMA. 2002;288(16):2015-22. [PubMed: 12387654].
  • 35. Jardine MJ, Kang A, Zoungas S, Navaneethan SD, Ninomiya T, Nigwekar SU, et al. The effect of folic acid based homocysteine lowering on cardiovascular events in people with kidney disease: systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ. 2012;344. e3533. doi: 10.1136/bmj.e3533. [PubMed: 22695899].
  • 36. Veeranna V, Zalawadiya SK, Niraj A, Pradhan J, Ference B, Burack RC, et al. Homocysteine and reclassification of cardiovascular disease risk. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2011;58(10):1025-33. doi: 10.1016/j.jacc.2011.05.028. [PubMed: 21867837].
  • 37. Sundstrom J, Sullivan L, Selhub J, Benjamin EJ, D'Agostino RB, Jacques PF, et al. Relations of plasma homocysteine to left ventricular structure and function: the Framingham Heart Study. Eur Heart J. 2004;25(6):523-30. doi: 10.1016/j.ehj.2004.01.008. [PubMed: 15039133].
  • 38. Okura T, Miyoshi K, Irita J, Enomoto D, Nagao T, Kukida M, et al. Hyperhomocysteinemia is one of the risk factors associated with cerebrovascular stiffness in hypertensive patients, especially elderly males. Sci Rep. 2014;4:5663. doi: 10.1038/srep05663. [PubMed: 25012721].
  • 39. Winkelmayer WC, Schaeffner ES, Chandraker A, Kramar R, Rumpold H, Sunder-Plassmann G, et al. A J-shaped association between high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and mortality in kidney transplant recipients. Transpl Int. 2007;20(6):505-11. doi: 10.1111/j.1432-2277.2007.00472.x. [PubMed: 17362474].
  • 40. Diekmann F, Campistol JM. Conversion from calcineurin inhibitors to sirolimus in chronic allograft nephropathy: benefits and risks. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2006;21(3):562-8. doi: 10.1093/ndt/gfi336. [PubMed: 16361278].

Featured Image:

Creative Commons License Except where otherwise noted, this work is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 4.0 International License .

Search Relations:



Create Citiation Alert
via Google Reader

Readers' Comments