Insertion of Intraprostate Gold Fiducial Markers in Prostate Cancer Treatment


Joaqun Ulises Juan Escudero 1 , * , Jorge Pastor Peidro 2 , Macarena Ramos de Campos 2 , Jose Lopez Torrecilla 2 , Emilio Lopez Alcina 2 , Pedro Navaln Verdejo 2 , Milagros Fabuel Deltoro 2 , Emilio Marques Vidal 2

1 Urology, Consorcio Hospital General de Valencia,, Spain

2 Radiotherapic Oncology, ERESA, Spain

How to Cite: Escudero J, Peidro J, de Campos M, Torrecilla J, Alcina E, et al. Insertion of Intraprostate Gold Fiducial Markers in Prostate Cancer Treatment, Nephro-Urol Mon. Online ahead of Print ; 2(1):265-272.


Nephro-Urology Monthly: 2 (1); 265-272
Article Type: Research Article
Received: June 29, 2009
Accepted: June 19, 2009




Background and Aims: Surgery and radiotherapy continue to be the treatments of choice for localised and locally advanced prostate cancer. In recent years, we have witnessed significant development in radiotherapy techniques in order to increase the dose on the target volume and diminish side effects. In the following work, we describe the technique of insertion of gold fiducial markers (gold seeds) as well as their application and usefulness in the treatment of locallizedand locally advanced prostate adenocarcinoma with image guided radiotherapy (IGRT) by means of the ExacTrac® system.

Methods: We did a prospective descriptive study including consecutive patients undergoing IGRT in our hospital. Patients were reviewed one week after the insertion of the markers and in each radiothrapic session. Between October 2005 and June 2007 we carried out a total of 126 procedures using this technique. Each patient was interviewed in each radiotherapic session. Three or four gold intraprostatic fiducial markers were implanted in each patient by transrectally and ultrasound guided. We reported patients tolerance of this technique by a satisfaction questionaire, as well as the early and late complications derived from the insertion of the markers in the clinical interview. We collected the movements of the gold seeds.

Results: Complications observed were: urinary infection in 4 cases (3.2%), prostatitis in 2 cases (1.6%), slight pelvic pain in 6 patients (4.8%) and self-limited rectal bleeding in 8 patients (6.4%). None of the patients presented haematuria. Loss of 1 marker was registered in 7 patients (5.5%) and loss of 2 markers in 2 patients (1.6%).

Conclusions: Insertion of fiducial markers for prostate cancer treatment is a technique of very simple execution, easy to reproduce almost free of adverse effects, which is able to reduce toxicity derived from radiotherapy and allows dose escalation in radiotherapy.


Fiducial Markers Image-Guided Radiotherapy Prostate Cancer Treatment

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