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Prevalence of Testicular Microlithiasis in Males Aged 0 to 18 Years Referred for Scrotal Sonography

AUTHORS

Joery Goede 1 , * , Hadassa A. Hofman 1 , Alice M. Wagenvoort 2 , Frank H. Pierik 3 , Wilfried W.M. Hack 1

1 Department of Paediatrics, Medical Centre Alkmaar, j.goede@mca.nl, Netherlands

2 Department of Radiology, Medical Centre Alkmaar, Netherlands

3 Netherlands Organisation for Applied Scientific Research TNO, Netherlands

How to Cite: Goede J , Hofman H, Wagenvoort A, Pierik F, Hack W. Prevalence of Testicular Microlithiasis in Males Aged 0 to 18 Years Referred for Scrotal Sonography, Nephro-Urol Mon. Online ahead of Print ; 4(1):377-3. doi: 10.5812/kowsar.22517006.1898.

ARTICLE INFORMATION

Nephro-Urology Monthly: 4 (1); 377-3
Published Online: December 19, 2011
Article Type: Research Article
Received: July 15, 2011
Accepted: August 3, 2011
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Abstract

Background: Testicular microlithiasis (TM) is a relatively uncommon and usually asymptomatic condition that is characterized by multiple 1-3 mm nonshadowing echogenic foci within the parenchyma of the testis.
Objectives: The prevalence of testicular microlithiasis was assessed retrospectively in males ranging from 0-18 years who had been referred for scrotal ultrasound.
Materials and Methods: Scrotal ultrasound examinations were performed in males aged 0-18 years old, producing 401 scans in 363 patients. The accumulated data included referring specialist, indication for sonography, consultant radiologist, number of images available for review of the left and right testis, associated anomalies, histological results, and testicular tumor markers.
Results: Testicular microlithiasis was found in 21 patients (5.8%). The mean age of the patients with and without testicular microlithiasis was 11.3 and 6.7 years, respectively (P = 0.000). Significantly more images were available for patients with testicular microlithiasis (P = 0.000), yet only 8 of the 21 cases (38.1%) were identified by the consultant radiologists. None of the boys with testicular microlithiasis were found to have a testicular malignancy.
Conclusions: Our study showed a prevalence of testicular microlithiasis of 5.8% in symptomatic boys. The prevalence seemed to increase with age. Consultant radiologists are advised to be more vigilant towards testicular microlithiasis and to scan and store a sufficient number of imaging planes during ultrasonography.


  • Implication for health policy/practice/research/medical education:
    The prevalence of testicular microlithiasis is 4.7% in boys aged 0–18 years who were referred for scrotal sonography and seemed to increase with age. Since testicular microlithiasis migth be associated with testicular malignancies and infertility, consultant radiologists are advised to be more vigilant towards testicular microlithiasis and to scan and store a sufficient number of imaging planes during ultrasonography.
  • Please cite this paper as:
    Goede J, Hofman HA, Wagenvoort AM, Pierik FH, Hack WWM. Prevalence of Testicular Microlithiasis in Males Aged 0 to 18 Years Referred for Scrotal Sonography.Nephro-Urol Mon.2012;4(1):377-80.DOI: 10.5812/kowsar.22517006.1898

   Copyright © 2012, Kowsar M.P.Co. All rights reserved.


Keywords

Prevalence Testicular Neoplasms Ultrasonography

© 2011, Author(s). This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/) which permits copy and redistribute the material just in noncommercial usages, provided the original work is properly cited.

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